Category: protest

Malcolm X during a demonstration against discriminatory hiring practices in Brooklyn, New York in 1963.

Photos by Bob Henriques

2/13/1963-New York, NY: Malcolm X is interviewed by television reporters during a Nation of Islam demonstration in Times Square, protesting the arrest of African Americans on what the Nation is calling false charges. They walked around Times Square, and then demonstrated with signs at Duffy Square Broadway at 47th Street.

Martin Luther King Jr. and Stokely Carmichael during the March Against Fear in Mississippi, June 1966.

On June 7th, 1966, James Meredith, who had integrated the University of Mississippi in 1962, began the March Against Fear; an attempt to walk from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, to promote black voter registration and defy entrenched racism. On the second day of the march Meredith was shot by an unknown gunman.  Other civil rights leaders, including Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, arrived to continue the march on his behalf. It was during the March Against Fear that Carmichael, who was leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, first spoke publicly of “Black Power.”

3/16/1964- New York, NY: New York City boycott leaders Representative Adam Clayton Powell, D-NY., Reverend Milton A. Galamison and Malcolm X are shown at Siloam Presbyterian Church in Brooklyn before the March 16 boycott of city public schools. The protest against segregation was only half as effective as the earlier one on Feb. 3 (267,545 pupils took part, compared with 464,362 last time), but leaders called it a success considering its lack of support from major Civil Rights groups which helped sponsor the first one.

Malcolm X speaking at a

boycott rally against the New York City Board of Education on March 16, 1964.

In one of the largest demonstrations of the Civil Rights movement, hundreds of thousands of parents, students and civil rights advocates took part in a citywide boycott of the New York City public school system to demonstrate their support for the full integration of the city’s public schools and an end to de facto segregation.

After years of unsuccessful lobbying, the Parents’ Workshop for Equality decided to take direct action against the school board and called upon Bayard Rustin to organize a one-day protest and boycott of the city’s public school system on February 3, 1964.

The organization’s sole objective was to render the racial imbalance of African American and Puerto Rican schools by persuading the New York City Board of Education to implement integration timetables.

Response from the African American and Puerto Rican communities was overwhelming as more than 450,000 students refused to attend their respective schools on the day of the boycott. In addition, thousands of demonstrators staged peaceful rallies at the Board of Education, City Hall and the Manhattan office of Governor Nelson Rockefeller. Despite enjoying broad support, the boycott failed to force the city’s school board to undertake immediate reform. Another boycott was held on March 16, over 250,000


participated in the second boycott.